ETUDES SCIENTIFIQUES EN RÉFLEXOLOGIE
Stress, anxiété, dépression, troubles du sommeil
Asltoghiri M., Ghodsi Z. (2012): The effects of Reflexology on sleep disorder in menopausal women, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31: 242-246.
Eguchi E. et al. (2016): The Effects of Aroma Foot Massage on Blood Pressure and Anxiety in Japanese Community-Dwelling Men and Women: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial, PLoS ONE 11(3): e0151712. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151712.
Esmel-Esmel N. et al. (2017). Reflexology and polysomnography: Changes in cerebral wave activity induced by reflexology promote N1 and N2 sleep stages, August, Vol. 28: 54-64. Conclusions: The application of reflexology induces changes in the activity of brain waves in correspondence with the appearance of a high degree of sleepiness and sleep (N1 and N2 NREM sleep). There is a gradual transition and an orderly progression from wakefulness to sleep which could explain the effects of relaxation and well being obtained with this method, as well as many other benefits. Reflexology can be applied as a non-pharmacological treatment to induce sleep.
Hughes Ciara M. et al. (2011). The effect of reflexology on the autonomic nervous system in healthy adults: a feasibility study, Altern Ther. Health Med, May-June, 17(3): 32-37. Conclusions: There were significant reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (22%; P = .03) and in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (26%; P = .01) during mental stress following reflexology compared to the stress period prior to intervention.
Kheyri A. et al. (2016): Effects of Reflexology on Sleep Quality of Elderly Women Undergoing Abdominal Surgery, Journal of Client-Centered Nursing Care, 2(1): 11-18.
Payrau B. et al. (2017): Fasciatherapy and Reflexology compared to Hypnosis and Music Therapy in Daily Stress Management, International Journal of Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork, Sept. 10(3): 4-13.
Vardanjani M. et al. (2013): A Randomized-Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Reflexology on Anxiety of Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography, Nursing and Midwifery Studies, Sept. 2(3): 3-9.
Troubles cardio-vasculaires (hypertension, troubles du rythme,...)
Lu W.A. et al. (2011): Foot Reflexology can increase vagal modulation, decrease sympathetic Modulation, and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Subjects and Patients With Coronary Artery Disease, Alternative Therapies, 17(4): 8-14.
Manjuri A.E., Latheef Fathima (2016). Effectiveness of Foot Reflexology and Back Massage in Improving the Quality of Sleep among Post-Caesarean Mothers, Int. J. Ayurveda Pharm. Sep.-Oct. 7(5): 103-108. Conclusions: Foot reflexology was better in improving quality of sleep than back massage.
McCullough Julie et al. (2017). A pilot randomised controlled trial exploring the effects of antenatal reflexology on labour outcomes, Midwifery, December (55): 137-144.
Rahmani A. et al. (2016): Comparing the Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage, Foot Bath and Their Combination on Quality of Sleep in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome, Journal of Caring Sciences, 5(4): 299-306.
Grossesse et post-partum
Basyouni Niven R. Et al. (2018). Effect of Foot Reflexology on Post-Cesarean Pain, IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science, Jul.-Aug. 7(4): 1-19. Conclusions: should be recommended in hospitals as a non-invasive, efficient, non-pharmacological approach for the management of post-cesarean pain
Bastani Farideh et al. (2015). Effectiveness of Foot Reflexology on Maternal Post C-Section Fatigue: A Non-Randomized Clinical Trial, Evidence Based Care Journal, 5(16): 51-62. Conclusions: Reflexology reduces fatigue in post C-section mothers.
Choi Mi Son, Lee Eun Ja (2015). Effects of Foot-Reflexology Massage on Fatigue, Stress and Postpartum Depression in Postpartum Women, J Korean Acad Nurs, 45(4): 587-594. Conclusions: Reflexology is effective in relieving fatigue, stress and depression for postpartum women.
Dolatian M. Et al. (2011). The Effect of Reflexology on Pain Intensity and Duration of Labour on Primiparas, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 13(7): 475-479. Conclusions: Reflexology decreases the pain intensity as well as the duration of labour.
Li, Chia-Yen & Chen, Su-Chiu & Li, Chung-Yi & Gau, Meei-Ling & Huang, Chiu-Mieh. (2009). Randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of using foot reflexology to improve quality of sleep amongst Taiwanese postpartum women. Midwifery. 27. 181-6. 10.1016/j.midw.2009.04.005. Conclusions: the outcome measure was the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Intervention involving foot reflexology in the postnatal period significantly improved the quality of sleep in order to increase maternal biopsychosocial well-being.
Gordon, J., Alder, E., Matthews-Smith, G., Hendry, I., & Wilson, D.(November 2010). The effectiveness of reflexology as an adjunct to treatment in childhood idiopathic constipation: A single line randomised controlled trial (The SOCC Project). Paper presented by Amy Kreydin at the Reflexology Associaton of Canada Conference, Winnipeg, British Columbia.
Troubles féminins (syndrome prémenstruel, dysménorrhée, ménopause)
Azima S. et al. (2015): Comparison of the effects of reflexology and massage therapy on primary dysmenorrheal, Biomedical Research, 26(3): 471-476.
Mohamed M. et al. (2016): Do Foot Reflexology and Relaxation decrease premenstrual symptoms in adolescent females, Int J Physiother, 3(5): 522-528.
Oleson T., Flocco W. (1993): Randomized Controlled Study of Premenstrual Symptoms Treated with Ear, Hand and Foot Reflexology, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 82(6): 906-911.
Pinto P.C., Paul S. (2012): Effect of foot reflexology on the quality of life among menopausal women in selected schools in Mangalore, Nitte University Journal of Health Science, 2(3): 75-79.
Valiani M. et al. (2010): Comparing the effects of reflexology methods and Ibuprofen administration on dysmenorrhea in female students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran J. Nurs Midwifery Res. 15(Suppl 1): 371-378.
Woodward S. et al. (2010): A pilot study of the effectiveness of reflexology in treating idiopathic constipation in women, Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16: 41-46.
Réflexologie prénatale et périnatale
Arnon, Zahi et al. (2018). Complementary medicine for laboring women: A qualitative study of the effects of reflexology. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 10.1515/jcim-2018-0022.
Conclusions: Despite pharmacological interventions, labor pain and anxiety still remain a challenge, and can carry long-term psychological complications. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of reflexology on these symptoms and to explore the physical and psychological components of women’s experience associated with this treatment. Reflexology can contribute greatly to the entire labor experience as it empowers women and increases self-confidence and ability to self-manage labor and delivery.
Basyouni Niven R. et al. (2018). Effect of Foot Reflexology on Post-Cesarean Pain, IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science, Jul.-Aug. 7(4): 1-19.
Conclusions: Reflexology should be recommended in hospitals as a non-invasive, efficient, non-pharmacological approach for the management of post-cesarean pain.
Bastani Farideh et al. (2015). Effectiveness of Foot Reflexology on Maternal Post C-Section Fatigue: A Non-Randomized Clinical Trial, Evidence Based Care Journal, 5(16): 51-62.
Conclusions: Reflexology reduces fatigue in post C-section mothers.
Choi Mi Son, Lee Eun Ja (2015). Effects of Foot-Reflexology Massage on Fatigue, Stress and Postpartum Depression in Postpartum Women, J Korean Acad Nurs, 45(4): 587-594.
Conclusions: Reflexology is effective in relieving fatigue, stress and depression for postpartum women.
Close Ciara et al. (2016). A pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effectiveness of reflexology for managing pregnancy low back and/or pelvic pain, Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, May (23): 117-124.
Conclusions: Many pregnant women with low back and/or pelvic pain (LBPP) use pain medications to manage this pain, much of which is self-prescribed and potentially harmful. Therefore, there is a need to find effective nonpharmacological treatments for the condition. Reflexology has previously been shown to help nonspecific low back pain. Therefore; a pilot RCT was conducted investigating reflexology in the management of pregnancy-LBPP. 90 primiparous women were randomised to either usual care, a reflexology or footbath intervention. The reflexology group demonstrated a Clinically Important Change (CIC) in pain frequency. Reflexology may therefore help manage pregnancy-LBPP.
Close, Ciara et al. (2014). A systematic review investigating the effectiveness of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for the management of low back and/or pelvic pain (LBPP) in pregnancy. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 10.1111/jan.12360.
Coban A., Sirin A. (2010). Effect of foot massage to decrease physiological lower leg edema in late pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial in Turkey, Int J Nurs Pract. Oct 16(5): 454-460. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-172X.2010.01869.x.
Danasu, Dr. R. (2015). Effectiveness of Reflex Zone Stimulation on initiation and maintenance of Lactation among Lactation Failure Mothers at SMVMCH, Kalitheerthalkuppam, Puducherry, Asian J Nur. Edu. and Research Oct-Dec 5(4): 505-512.
Conclusions: Reflexology is effective in the initiation and maintenance of lactation.
Deepshikha, Vibha (2016). Effect of Foot Reflexology on Post Operative Pain and Sleep among Post Cesarean Mothers. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research, 4(4): 441-444.
Conclusions: Foot reflexology is a non pharmacological intervention without any adverse effects. The results proved that foot reflexology was effective in reducing the level of post-operative pain and improving sleep.
Degirmen, N. et al. (2009) Effectiveness of Foot and Hand Massage in Post Caesarian Pain Control in a Group of Turkish Pregnant Women. Appl Nurs Res, doi:10.1016/j.apnr.2008.08.001.
Dolatian M. Et al. (2011). The Effect of Reflexology on Pain Intensity and Duration of Labour on Primiparas, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 13(7): 475-479.
Conclusions: Reflexology decreases the pain intensity as well as the duration of labour.
Erkek Zümrüt Yilar, Aktaş Songul (2018). The Effect of Foot Reflexology on the Anxiety Levels of Women in Labor, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Apr 24(4): https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2017.0263
Conclusions: Foot reflexology was found to have a positive effect in lowering the total anxiety scores of the pregnant women. A decrease in anxiety experienced at birth improves women's positive birth experiences, promotes a secure mother–infant attachment, and protects postpartum mental health.
Firoozi M. (2003). Application of Reflexology in midwifery. Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 9(2)
Ghaffari, Fatemeh, Ghaznein, T.P. (2010). The reflexology of sole on tiredness intensity in pregnant women, Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine, 1: 58-62.
Conclusions: Reflexology reduces tiredness in pregnant women significantly. The other variables such as social support and sulfate ferros tablet can reduce tiredness intensity too.
Hanjani, Soheila et al. (2015). The Effect of Foot Reflexology on Anxiety, Pain, and Outcomes of the Labor in Primigravida Women. Acta Medica Iranica. 53. 507-511.
Conclusions: Reflexology is a technique used widely as one of non-pharmacological pain management technique. The pain intensity was scored immediately after the end of intervention and at 30, 60 and 120 min after the intervention in both groups, based on McGill Questionnaire for Pain Rating Index (PRI). Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was completed before and after intervention in both groups. Duration of labor phases, the type of labor and Apgar scores of the infant at the first and fifth minute were recorded in both groups. Application of reflexology technique decreased pain intensity (at 30, 60 and 120 min after intervention) and duration of labor as well as anxiety level significantly. Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of the frequency distribution of the type of labor and Apgar score. Results of this study show that reflexology reduces labor pain intensity, duration of labor, anxiety, frequency distribution of natural delivery and increases Apgar scores. Using this non-invasive technique, obstetricians can achieve, to some extent, to one of the most important goals of midwifery as pain relief and reducing anxiety during labor and encourage the mothers to have a vaginal delivery.
Hensman M. (2009). Reflexology in preconception and pregnancy. The Practising Midwife, 12(7):17-9.
Hughes, Ciara et al. (2018). The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for pregnancy related low back and/ or pelvic girdle pain: An online survey. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 31. 10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.01.015.
Conclusions: Low back and pelvic girdle pain (LBPGP) is a common complaint among pregnant women, which increases throughout pregnancy. 81% of women used CAM to manage their LBPGP and 85% found it useful for pregnancy symptoms.
Irani M. et al. (2015). The Effect of Hand and Foot Massage on Post-Cesarean Pain and Anxiety. Journal of Midwifery and Reproductive Health; 3(4): 465-471.
Conclusions: hand and foot massage is associated with reduced pain and anxiety, and it can be used as a complementary method to alleviate pain and anxiety.
Jones L et al. (2012). Pain management for women in labour: An overview of systematic reviews (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012(3). Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD009234.pub2/pdf
Khoshtarash, Mehrnoosh et al. (2012). Effects of foot reflexology on pain and physiological parameters after cesarean section. Koomesh. 14(1): 109-116.
Conclusions: Pain is a common phenomenon after all surgical operations. Although using analgesia is usual to relieve pain, its complication, unavailability, necessity of taking less drugs, especially analgesia, and also ineffectiveness of using analgesia alone, to relieve pain has focused therapeutic system on complementary treatments such as foot reflexology. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the effects of foot reflexology on pain in patients who underwent cesarean section. Conclusions: the severity of pain after first stage (day one) was significantly lower than before reflexology session.
Kordi, Masoumeh et al. (2016). Effect of hand and foot massage on vital signs of women after caesarean section. Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility. 19. 8-15.
Conclusions: Assessment of vital signs is essential in determining the patient’s health status. Change in vital signs can be the symptoms of the body’s response to physical and psychological stress or changes in physiological functioning of the body. The massage-therapy helps to the improvement of nervous and cardiovascular system and cause a feeling of wellbeing, relaxation and comfort in the patient. Therefore, this study was performed with aim to determine the effect of massage on vital signs of women after cesarean section. Hand and foot massage improves the women's vital signs after caesarean section that can indicate relaxation and reducing stress.
Latifi S. et al. (2012). The effect of foot and hand massage on post-cesarean section. Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine Journal, 2(7):102-107. (Persian)
Li, Chia-Yen et al. (2009). Randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of using foot reflexology to improve quality of sleep amongst Taiwanese postpartum women. Midwifery. 27. 181-6. 10.1016/j.midw.2009.04.005.
Conclusions: the outcome measure was the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Intervention involving foot reflexology in the postnatal period significantly improved the quality of sleep in order to increase maternal biopsychosocial well-being.
Loganayagi, K. & Sumathi, G. (2014). Effectiveness of reflex zone therapy among primi para at selected hospitals, Journal of Science, 4(12): 732-735. www.journalofscience.net/doi/MTY0a2FsYWkxNDc4NTIzNjk=
Conclusions: Reflexology is an effective method for the early initiation of breastfeeding among primi mothers.
Macchi, Nikita (2019). Effect of Foot Reflexology on Lactation - A literature review, International Journal of Advanced Research, 7: 962-966. 10.21474/IJAR01/8723.
Mathew Ancy Metin, Francis Frincy (2016). Effectiveness of Foot Reflexology in Reduction of Labour Pain among Mothers in Labour Admitted at PSG Hospital, Coimbatore, International Journal of Nursing Education, July-Sept 8(3): 11-15.
Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the intensity of pain among the experimental group.
McCullough Julie E.M. et al. (2018). Reflexology: A randomised controlled trial investigating the effects on beta-endorphin, cortisol and pregnancy related stress, Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, May (31): 76-84. Conclusions: Pregnant women use reflexology for a range of conditions. Reflexology may be helpful for managing pregnancy related low back and/or pelvic girdle pain (LBPGP).
McCullough Julie et al. (2017). A pilot randomised controlled trial exploring the effects of antenatal reflexology on labour outcomes, Midwifery, December (55): 137-144.
Conclusions: Antenatal reflexology reduced labour duration for primiparous women who had experienced low back and/ or pelvic girdle pain during their pregnancy. Reflexology is suitable for use during pregnancy, is safe and enjoyable and may reduce labour duration. Midwives may wish to recommend reflexology to promote normal childbirth and facilitate women centred care.
McNeill, J. A. et al. (2006) A Retrospective Cohort Study Exploring the Relationship between Antenatal Reflexology and Intranatal Outcomes. Compl Ther Clin Pract, 12, 119-125.
McNeill, Jennifer et al. (2006). A retrospective cohort study exploring the relationship between antenatal reflexology and intranatal outcomes. Complementary therapies in clinical practice. 12. 119-25. 10.1016/j.ctcp.2005.11.004.
Conclusions: The integration of reflexology into midwifery care has become more common in recent years as a result of a developing interest in alternative and complementary therapies and also due to the integration of new skills into midwifery practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of antenatal reflexology with different outcomes in the intranatal period. The key variables of interest were onset of labour, duration of labour, analgesia used and mode of delivery. The findings showed there was no significant difference in the onset of labour or duration of labour between the two groups. The group who had four or more reflexology treatments had a reduced length of labour but this was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference in the use of Entonox between the two groups with the reflexology group having a lower uptake. Fewer women in the reflexology group had a normal labour with a higher percentage of women having a forceps delivery. In conclusion the only statistically significant difference between groups was less use of Entonox in the reflexology group. Further research requires standardized treatment and outcome measurement using prospective randomized designs with large samples.
Mirzaei, F & Kaviani, Masoomeh & Jafari, Peyman. (2010). Effect of foot reflexology on duration of labor and severity of first-stage labor pain. Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility. 13. 27-32. Introduction:One of the problems that occupy pregnant women's mind is the labor pain. Owing to considerable rate of Caesarean sections in our community (due to fear of labor pain) it is our duty to try to increase the rate of normal vaginal deliveries instead. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of reflexology on the severity of labor pain and labor duration in nulliparous women. Methods: This clinical trial study was carried out on 70 nulliparous women (39 intervention and 31 controls) who referring to labor room of Afzalipour Hospital (Kerman city) with gestational age of 37 weeks and above, and cervical dilatation of 3-4 cm. They had no significant diseases according to their medical records, nor had used any medications during labor. The intervention group received reflexology for 20 minutes (10 minutes each foot) during their uterus contraction in active phase of labor (acceleration). The control group underwent massage for 20 minutes at the same time but on other areas of their feet. Severity of labor pain was shown by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), before and after the intervention. Moreover, the duration of labor was determined for both two groups. Results: Severity of labor pain before foot reflexology did not vary between case and control groups (p = 0.14) but after it, severity of labor pain in the intervention group was lower than the control group (p < 0.001). The severity of labor pain reduced after the intervention in the intervention group (p < 0.001), whereas, labor pain increased in the control group (p < 0.001). However, the labor durations were same in both groups (p<0.063). Conclusions: Reflexology have an indisputable effect on decreasing labor pain in the first phase, whereas, it does not affect the total duration of labor.
Mirzaie Parisa et al. (2018). The effect of foot reflexology massage on breast milk volume of mothers with premature infants: A randomized controlled trial, European Journal of Integrative Medicine, January (17): 72-78.
Conclusions: The results show positive effect of foot reflexology on increasing breast milk of premature infants’ mothers.
Moghimi-Hanjani Soheila et al. (2015). The effect of foot reflexology on anxiety, pain, and outcomes of the labor in primigravida women. Acta Med Iran, 53(8):507-511, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26545996.
Conclusions: Application of reflexology technique decreased pain intensity (at 30, 60 and 120 min after intervention) and duration of labor as well as anxiety level significantly (P<0.001). Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of the frequency distribution of the type of labor and Apgar score (P<0.001). Results of this study show that reflexology reduces labor pain intensity, duration of labor, anxiety, frequency distribution of natural delivery and increases Apgar scores. Using this non-invasive technique, obstetricians can achieve, to some extent, to one of the most important goals of midwifery as pain relief and reducing anxiety during labor and encourage the mothers to have a vaginal delivery.
Mohammadpour A. et al. (2018). Investigating the Effect of Reflexology on the Breast Milk Volume of Preterm Infants’ Mothers, Iran J. Nurs Midwifery Res. Sep-Oct 23(5): 371-375. doi: 10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_175_16. Conclusions: Reflexology is effective on the volume of milk of mothers.
Mollart, L. (2003). Single-Blind Trial Addressing the Differential Effects of Two Reflexology Techniques Versus Rest, on Ankle and Foot Oedema in Late Pregnancy. Compl Ther Nurs Midwifery, 9(4), 203-208.
Motha G, & McGarth J. 1994. The effects of reflexology on labour outcome. In: Association of Reflexologists. Reflexology Research Reports (2nd ed). Association of Reflexologists, London.
Najar S. et al. (2011). The effect of hand and foot massage on pain intensity after caesarean. Scientific Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences, 20(4):39-48. (Persian)
Pormehr Yabandeh et al. (2018). The Effect of Reflexology on Labor Pain and Length Among Primiparous Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Int Electron J Med, 7(1): 30-34 Conclusions: Data analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the intensity of pain in the 5-7 and 8-10 cm dilatation in the two groups. Moreover, the labor length in the active phase was found to be significantly shorter in the intervention group Reflexology can lead to a reduction in the pain and length of labor.
Pourghaznein T & Ghafari F. (2006). The effect of sole reflexology on severity of fatigue in pregnant women. TUMS Publications: Tehran University of Medical Sciences Publications, 12;4:5-12 [ Article in Persian].
Saatsaz Sussan et al. (2016). Massage as adjuvant therapy in the management of post-cesarean pain and anxiety: A randomized clinical trial, Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 24: 92-98.
Conclusion: A significant reduction was observed in the intensity of pain immediately and 90 min after massage. Moreover, changes in some of the physiological parameters, including blood pressure and respiration rate, were significant after massage; however, this change was not significant for pulse rate. A significant reduction was also observed in the level of anxiety and a significant increase in the frequency of breastfeeding.
Smith C.A. et al. (2012). Massage, reflexology and other manual methods for pain management in labour (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;2:CD009290. Available from:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD009290.pub2/pdf
Smith, Caroline et al. (2018). Massage, reflexology and other manual methods for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3. 10.1002/14651858.CD009290.pub3.
Conclusions: Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour, and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. Massage provided a greater reduction in pain intensity than usual care during the first, second and third stages of labour and less anxiety and an increased sense of control and greater satisfaction with the childbirth experience.
Tipping L, Mackereth P. A (2000). A concept analysis:The effect of reflexology on homeostasis to establish and maintain lactation. Complement Therap Nurs Midwifery. 6: 189-98.
Valiani Mahboubeh et al. (2010). Reviewing the effect of reflexology on the pain and certain features and outcomes on the labor on the primiparous women, Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res., Dec, 15(Suppl1): 302-310.
Conclusions: Significant difference between the two groups in terms of pain intensity, labor was facilitated through increase in uterine contractions and intervention needs.
Varghese Jipi et al. (2014). A Randomized Control Trial to Determine the Effect of Foot Reflexology on Intensity of Pain and Quality of Sleep in Post Caesarean Mothers, IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science, Jan 3(1): 39-43.
Conclusions: Foot reflexology is a non pharmacological intervention without any adverse effects. The results proved that foot reflexology was effective in reducing the post operative pain among post caesarean mothers.